Clinical and immunological parallels in children patients with COVID-19


The problem of the incidence of new coronavirus infection in childhood is becoming increasingly important. At the same time, questions arise regarding the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in children.

The aim of the research was to study the clinical and immunological features of COVID-19 in children hospitalized with a severe course of the disease.

Material and methods. We examined 53 children from 0 to 15 years old, hospitalized with suspected new coronavirus infection at Children’s Clinical Hospital No. 3 in Novosibirsk from October to December 2020. Determination of specific IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in serum blood was carried out using the ELISA method. SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs was determined using commercial kits for PCR diagnostics. A z-test was used to compare relative numbers. The significance level was taken equal to 5% (p=0.05).

Results and discussion. All examined children hospitalized with suspected COVID-19, regardless of the duration of the disease, had specific IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens, which confirms earlier contact with the new coronavirus in relation to the time of the examination. In 63.6% of cases, specific IgM antibodies of the class to SARS-CoV-2 were detected in the blood serum, in 6% of cases the result was doubtful. IgM antibodies were not detected in blood serum in 30.3% of patients. The results obtained for the determination of IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens may reflect the atypical nature of seroconversion in COVID-19. An extremely diverse clinical symptomatology was revealed, including, in addition to catarrhal syndrome and intoxication syndrome, abdominal, meningeal, and articular syndromes. In 24.3% of children, polymorphic exanthema was detected, which may be a manifestation of the systemic nature of damage to the vascular wall.

Conclusion. With serologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 etiology of the infectious process in the examined children, an extremely diverse clinical symptomatology was revealed, which, most likely, may be associated with multiple organ damage.

Keywords:SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; antibodies; children; immunity

Funding. The study was not sponsored.

Conflict of interest. The authors declare that there is not conflict of interest.

Contribution. Concept and design of the study – Obukhova O.O., Ryabichenko T.I., Trunov A.N., Voevoda M.I.; collection and processing of the material – Karpovuthc G.S., Kuimova I.V., Skosyreva G.A., Gorbenko O.M.; statistical processing – Obukhova O.O., Ryabichenko T.I., Trunov A.N.; writing of the text – Obukhova O.O., Ryabichenko T.I., Skosyreva G.A.; editing – Voevoda M.I.

For citation: Obukhova O.O., Karpovich G.S., Ryabichenko T.I., Skosyreva G.A., Gorbenko O.M., Trunov A.N., Kuimova I.V., Voevoda M.I. Clinical and immunological parallels in children patients with COVID-19. Infektsionnye bolezni: novosti, mneniya, obuchenie [Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training]. 2022; 11 (1): 25–31. DOI:


1.Ogimi C., Kim Y.J., Martin E.T., et al. What’s new with the old coronaviruses? J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020; 9 (2): 210–7. DOI:

2. Ryabichenko T.I., Skosyreva G.A., Obukhova O.O., Kurskaya O.G., Kos’yanova T.G., Gorbenko O.M., et al. Etiological structure of acute respiratory viral infections in children hospitalized in 2015–2018. Infektsionnye bolezni: novosti, mneniya, obuchenie [Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training]. 2021; 10 (2): 47–53. DOI: (in Russian)

3.Jiang S., Shi Z., Shu Y., et al. A distinct name is needed for the new coronavirus. Lancet. 2020; 395 (10 228): 949. DOI:

4. Lee P.I., Hu Y.L., Chen P.Y., et al. Are children less susceptible to COVID-19? J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020; 53 (3): 371–2. DOI:

5.Shen K., Yang Y. Diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: a pressing issue. World J Pediatr. 2020; 16 (3): 219–21. DOI:

6.Molloy E.J., Bearer C.F. COVID-19 in children and altered inflammatory responses. Pediatr Res. 2020; 88 (3): 340–1. DOI:

7.Cristiani L., Mancino E., Matera L., et al. Will children reveal their secret? The coronavirus dilemma. Eur Respir J. 2020; 55 (4): 2000749. DOI:

8.Namazova-Baranova L.S., Baranov A.A. COVID-19 and children. Pul’monologiya. [Pulmonology]. 2020; 30 (5): 609–28. DOI: (in Russian)

9.Rusinova D.S., Nikonov E.L., Namazova-Baranova L.S., et al. Primary observational results on children who have been exposed to COVID-19 in Moscow. Pediatricheskaya farmakologiya [Pediatric Pharmacology]. 2020; 17 (2): 95–102. DOI: (in Russian)

10. Saleem H., Rahman J., Aslam N., et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children: vulnerable or spared? A systematic review. Cureus. 2020; 12 (5): e8207. DOI:

11.Kam K.Q., Yung C.F., Cui L., et al. A well infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high viral load. Clin Infect Dis. 2020; 71 (15): 847–9. DOI:

12.Guan W.J., Ni Z.Y., Hu Y., et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382 (18): 1708–20. DOI:

13. Qiu H., Wu J., Hong L., et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20 (6): 689–96. DOI:

14. Xu Y., Li X., Zhu B., et al. Characteristics of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection and potential evidence for persistent fecal viral shedding. Nat Med. 2020; 26 (4): 502–5. DOI:

15.Cao Q., Chen Y.C., Chen C.L., et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children: transmission dynamics and clinical characteristics. J Formos Med Assoc. 2020; 119 (3): 670–3. DOI:

16. Chen Z.M., Fu J.F., Shu Q., et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World J Pediatr. 2020; 16 (3): 240–6. DOI:

17.Henry B.M., Lippi G., Plebani M. Laboratory abnormalities in children with novel coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020; 58 (7): 1135–8. DOI:

18.Worcester S. COVID-19 characteristics differ in children vs adults. Medscape. 2020. Mar. 13. URL:

19. Huang C., Wang Y., Li X., et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395 (10 223): 497–506. DOI:

20. Lu X., Liqiong Z.L., Du H., et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382 (17): 1663–5. DOI:

21. Methodological recommendations of the Ministry of Health of Russia «Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19» (version 7 of 06/03/2020). URL: (in Russian)

22.Baklaushev V.P., Kulemzin S.V., Gorchakov A.A., Lesnyak V.N., Yusubalieva G.M., Sotnikova A.G. COVID-19. Etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Klinicheskaya praktika [Clinical Practice]. 2020; 11 (1): 7–20. DOI: (in Russian)

23.Ferran M. Coronavirus tests are pretty accurate, but far from perfect. May 6, 2020. URL: (date of access October 16, 2020)

24. Adams E., Ainsworth M., Anand R., et al. Evaluation of antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 using ELISA and lateral flow immunoassays. National COVID Testing Scientific Advisory Panel. MedRxiv. 2020. DOI: 04.15.20066407 (date of access October 16, 2020)

25. Tan W., Lu Y., Zhang J., et al. Viral kinetics and antibody responses in patients with COVID-19. MedRxiv. 2020. DOI: (date of access June 16, 2021)

Yushchuk Nikolay Dmitrievich
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor, head of the Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Department, President of the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov, Board member of the National Scientific Infectiologists? Society.
Medicine today

II Всероссийская конференция с международным участием "Воспаление глаза" 12 ноября 2022 года, Москва Воспалительные заболевания глаза - широко распространенная и многогранная проблема, с которой может столкнуться в своей практике любой специалист. Найти оптимальные алгоритмы...

Масштабное событие в области дерматовенерологии и косметологии - II конференция InteDeCo 2022 "Интегративная дерматовенерология и косметология. Новые стандарты взаимодействия" - состоится 16-17 декабря 2022 года. Программа мероприятия пройдет на современной...

VIII Московский Городской Съезд педиатров с межрегиональным и международным участием "Трудный диагноз в педиатрии" Приглашаем педиатров, детских эндокринологов, реаниматологов, гинекологов, неонатологов, кардиологов, хирургов, урологов, психологов, специалистов по лучевой...

Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»