Helicobacter pylori: clinical significance and diagnostic principles

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is one of the most significant human pathogens. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis in all infected individuals, which can lead to peptic ulcer disease, atrophic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma, or gastric MALT lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori leads to the cure of gastritis, which is the basis for the prevention of the development or recurrence of these diseases. For the primary diagnosis of H. pylori, non-invasive methods are preferred - 13C-urease breath test and stool H. pylori antigen test. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of artificial intelligence to predict H. pylori status with high accuracy based on endoscopic images. The article presents the main factors of H. pylori virulence and their role in the pathogenic mechanism. The review presents modern methods for the diagnosis of H. pylori, their advantages and disadvantages in various clinical situations.

Keywords:Helicobacter pylori; virulence factors; CagA; gastric cancer; diagnostic methods; artificial intelligence; 13C-urease breath test

Funding. The work was done without sponsorship.

Conflict of interest. The author declares that they have no conflicts of interest.

Contribution. All authors made an equivalent contribution to the preparation of the article materials.

For citation: Bordin D.S., Shengelia M.I., Ivanova V.A., Voynovan I.N. Helicobacter pylori: clinical significance and diagnostic principles. Infektsionnye bolezni: novosti, mneniya, obuchenie [Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training]. 2022; 11 (1): 119-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33029/2305-3496-2022-11-1-119-129

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Yushchuk Nikolay Dmitrievich
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor, head of the Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Department, President of the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry named after A.I. Evdokimov, Board member of the National Scientific Infectiologists? Society.
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